Cancer Specialist Centre

+6011-3432 1333

Cancer Specialist
Centre

+6011-3432 1333

Cancer Specialist
Centre

Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world. Almost everyone knows someone who got sick or died from cancer. Most of the time, cancer affects people who are older although children can also get cancer. The good news, however, is that with advances in detecting and treating cancer, more and more people today are outliving the disease.

According to the Health Minister, 1 in 4 Malaysians will unfortunately develop cancer by the time they reach 75 years old.

Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world. Almost everyone knows someone who got sick or died from cancer. Most of the time, cancer affects people who are older although children can also get cancer. The good news, however, is that with advances in detecting and treating cancer, more and more people today are outliving the disease.

According to the Health Minister, 1 in 4 Malaysians will unfortunately develop cancer by the time they reach 75 years old.

Male Cancer

ICD-10 Sites Number % CR ASR
Male
C18-C21 Colorectal 7,646 16.3 11.7 14.6
C33-C34 Trachea, Bronchus, Lung 7,415 15.8 11.3 14.4
C11 Nasopharynx 3,785  8.1  5.8 6.4
C81-C85,C96 Lymphoma 3,171 6.8 4.8 5.5
C61 Postate 3,132 6.7 4.8 6.6
C22 Liver 3,054 6.5 4.7 5.6
C91-C95 Lukaemia 2,549 5.4 3.9 4.2
C16 Stomach 2,014 4.3 3.1 3.9
C67 Bladder 1,477 3.2 2.3 2.9
C44 Other Skin 1,384 3.0 2.1 2.7
Others 11,167 23.9
Total 46,794 100.0 71.4  86.9 

Female Cancer

ICD-10 Sites Number % CR ASR
Female
C50 Breast 18,206 32.1 28.6 31.1
C18-C21 Colorectal 6,047 10.7 9.5 11.1
C52 Cervix Uteri 4,352 7.7 6.8 7.6
C56 Ovary 3,472 6.1 5.4 5.9
C33-C34 Trachea, Bronchus, Lung 3,193 5.6 5.0 6.0
C81-C85,C96 Lymphoma 2,203 3.9 3.5 3.8
C54 Corpus Uteri 2,181 3.8 3.4 3.8
C91-C95 Leukaemia 2,024 3.6 3.2 3.4
C73 Thyroid 1,723 3.0 2.7 2.9
C16 Stomach 1,447 2.6 2.3 2.6
 Others  11,865  20.9
 Total 56,713  100.0  89.0   99.3

Reference: Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report, Retrieved (21 July 2017), from Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report 2007-2011.

What Is Cancer?

Cancer is not just one but a group of many related diseases that takes place when cells that are not normal grow and spread very rapidly. Normal body cells grow and divide and know to stop growing. Over time, they also die. Unlike these normal cells, cancer cells just continue to grow and divide of control.

Cancer cells usually group or clump together to form tumors and a growing tumor becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumor and damage the body’s healthy tissues.

Sometimes cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel to other areas of the body, where they keep growing and can go on to form new tumors. This is how cancer spreads and this movement to other parts of the body is called metastasis.

Cancers are divided into five main categories according to the type of cells:

  1. Carcinoma (cancer that starts from tissues that forms an organ such as skin, lung, liver, breast, intestine, breast, cervix, ovary, etc.)
  2. Brain and spinal cord cancers
  3. Leukemia (cancer that starts in blood forming tissue such as bone marrow or more commonly known as cancers of blood cells)
  4. Lymphoma and myeloma (cancers that starts in the cells of the immune system)
  5. Sarcoma (cancer that starts in the connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle,  fat or blood vessels.

What causes cancer?

Cancer cells is a result of errors occur during cell division or because of damaged DNA caused by environmental exposures. Till date, we are still unable to pin point an exact cause of cancer, but there are plenty of studies and researches that support certain risk factors that may increase the chances of developing cancer.

Cancer causing substances such as chemicals in tobacco smoke, radiation such as ultraviolet sunrays, air pollution, chemicals from workplace such as asbestos, benzene, formaldehyde, wood dust etc. has the strongest association to the direct cause of cancer. Other risk factors include obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, dietary habit, infections and HPV (human papillomavirus), hormones, inherited genes and etc.

How can you find out if you have cancer?

With the latest advances in screening and medical testing, a doctor can detect if you are likely to have cancer.  The doctor can then recommend tests such as a X-ray and blood test and recommend a cancer specialist or oncologist for further tests to determine what kind of cancer you have and if it has spread to other parts of the body. Based on the results, the doctor will decide the best way to treat your cancer.

One test that an oncologist may perform is a biopsy where a piece of tissue is removed from a tumor or a place in the body where cancer is suspected, like the bone marrow. The sample that’s collected will then be examined under a microscope for cancer cells. It’s important to remember that the sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better your chances are for a full recovery and cure.

What Are The Stages Of Cancer?

Stage Sites
0

Abnormal cells in an area of body and may develop into cancer in future, also known as Carcinoma In Situ.

I

Cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ it started.

II

Cancer has not spread into surrounding tissues but cancer cells may have spread into lymph nodes close to the tumour.

III

Cancer may have spread to surrounding tissues and lymph nodes in the area.

IV

Cancer has spread from where it started to another organ. This is also known as secondary or metastatic cancer.

Cancer Research UK

Reference: Cancer Research UK, Retrieved (21 July 2017), https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/ 

Staging describes the size of a cancer and how far it has grown. It is important because it provides valuable information for doctors in coming up with a treatment plan and to determine whether the treatment should involve a course of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery or a combination of the three.

What is the treatment for cancer?

Cancer is usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation — or sometimes a combination of these treatments. The choice of treatment depends on the type of cancer you have and the stage of the tumor.

Surgery, it is a procedure which is performed by an experienced surgeon that removes growth or cancer from your body. Surgery maybe open (large cut) or minimally invasive (keyhole surgery) depending on the part of the body and the accessibility to the tumour. During surgery the doctor tries to take out as many cancer cells as possible. Some healthy cells or tissue may also be removed to make sure that all the cancer is gone.

Chemotherapy, the use of anti-cancer medicines to treat cancer, are sometimes taken as a pill, but usually are given through a special intravenous line. Chemotherapy is usually given over a number of weeks to months.

Radiation therapy, at low doses of radiation, it used in x-rays to look at the bones, lung problems such as chest infection, heart problem such as heart failure, etc. On the other hand, high doses of radiation is been used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumours.

Targeted therapies are drugs or other elements that block the development and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules (“molecular targets”) that are involved in the growth, progression, and spread of cancer. At times targeted therapy are called “molecularly targeted drugs,” “molecularly targeted therapies,” “precision medicines,” or similar names. Treatment with these drugs is called targeted therapy.

Immunotherapy is a form cancer treatment that uses or helps your immune system to fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy and these type of treatment uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer. The main forms of immunotherapy now being used to treat cancer include:

  • Monoclonal antibodies, which are drugs that are designed to bind to specific targets in the body. They can cause an immune response that destroys cancer cells.Other types of monoclonal antibodies can “mark” cancer cells so it is easier for the immune system to find and destroy them. These types of monoclonal antibodies may also be referred to as targeted therapy.
  • Adoptive cell transfer, which is a treatment that attempts to boost the natural ability of your T cells to fight cancer. T cells are a type of white blood cell and part of the immune system. Researchers take T cells from the tumor. They then isolate the T cells that are most active against your cancer or modify the genes in them to make them better able to find and destroy your cancer cells.You may have treatments to reduce your immune cells. After these treatments, the T cells that were grown in the lab will be given back to you via a needle in your vein. The process of growing your T cells in the lab can take 2 to 8 weeks, depending on how fast they grow.
  • Cytokines, which are proteins that are made by your body’s cells. They play important roles in the body’s normal immune responses and also in the immune system’s ability to respond to cancer. The two main types of cytokines used to treat cancer are called interferons and interleukins.
  • Treatment Vaccines, which work against cancer by boosting your immune system’s response to cancer cells. Treatment vaccines are different from the ones that help prevent disease.

Why is Screening Important?

We know that early detection is one of the most important factors to surviving cancer. Whether you have a family medical history, lifestyle, and other factors that indicate that you are at greater risk for cancer, or if you are in a low-risk group with no symptoms of the disease, screenings are critical to successfully diagnosing and treating cancer.

Screening tests can help find cancer at an early stage, before symptoms appear. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat or cure

What We Can Do For You?

Beacon Hospital prides itself as a cancer specialist hospital that offers a comprehensive cancer treatment programme which includes surgery, radiotherapy (using LINAC), radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) (using CyberKnife), chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.

Here at Beacon Hospital, we also offer comprehensive Health Screening packages to suit your specific needs

What are the types of cancer?

Ear Nose Throat Cancer
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Breast Cancer
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Colon Cancer
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Pancreatic Cancer
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Spinal Cord Cancer
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What are the types of cancer?

Ear Nose Throat Cancer
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Breast Cancer
Discover More >>
Colon Cancer
Discover More >>
Pancreatic Cancer
Discover More >>
Spinal Cord Cancer
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