Cancer Specialist Centre

Beacon Hospital Hotline

+6018-223 3365

Cancer Specialist
Centre

+6018-223 3365

Cancer Specialist
Centre

Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world. Almost everyone knows someone who got sick or died from cancer. Cancer could develop at any age but it is much more common with people who are older. This is because our cells can get damaged over time. This damage can build up as we age, and can sometimes lead to cancer. However, with the rapid advancement of science and technology to detect and treat cancer, a greater number of people are outliving the disease.

Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world. Almost everyone knows someone who got sick or died from cancer. Cancer could develop at any age but it is much more common with people who are older. This is because our cells can get damaged over time. This damage can build up as we age, and can sometimes lead to cancer. However, with the rapid advancement of science and technology to detect and treat cancer, a greater number of people are outliving the disease.

What Is Cancer?

Cancer is not just one but a group of many related diseases that takes place when the growth of the cells are not normal and spread very rapidly. Normal body cells grow and divide to make more cells only when the body needs them. But cancer cells are different.

  • Cancer cells have gene mutations that turn the cell from a normal cell into a cancer cell.
  • A cancer cell doesn’t act like a normal cell. It starts to grow and divide out of control instead of dying when it should.
  • Cancer cells usually group or clump together to form tumours and a growing tumour becomes a lump of cancer cells that can destroy the normal cells around the tumour and damage the body’s healthy tissues.
  • As cancer cells divide, a tumour will develop and grow. Cancer cells have the same needs as normal cells. As a tumour grows, it needs more blood to bring oxygen and other nutrients to the cancer cells. The cancer cells send signals for a tumour to make new blood vessels.
  • When tumours grow and get bigger. It also leads cancer cells to get into the blood and spread more easily to other parts of the body which is called metastasis.

Cancers are divided into five main categories according to the type of cells:

  1. Carcinoma (cancer that starts from tissues that form an organ such as skin, lung, liver, breast, intestine, breast, cervix, ovary, etc.)
  2. Brain and spinal cord cancers
  3. Brain and spinal cord cancers
  4. Lymphoma and myeloma (cancers that starts in the cells of the immune system)
  5. Sarcoma (cancer that starts in the connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, fat or blood vessels.

What causes cancer?

Cancer cells are a result of errors occur during cell division or because of damaged DNA caused by environmental exposures. Till date, we are still unable to pinpoint an exact cause of cancer, but there are plenty of studies and researches that support certain risk factors that may increase the chances of developing cancer.

The strongest association to the direct cause of cancer are cancer-causing substances such as:

  • Chemicals in tobacco smoke
  • Radiation such as ultraviolet sun rays
  • Air pollution
  • Chemicals from the workplace such as asbestos, benzene, formaldehyde, wood dust, etc.

Other risk factors include:

  • Obesity
  • Alcohol
  • Physical inactivity
  • Dietary habit
  • Infections
  • HPV (human papillomavirus)
  • Hormones
  • Inherited genes and etc.

How can you find out if you have cancer?

With the latest advances in screening and medical diagnosis, a doctor can detect if you are likely to have cancer.  The doctor can then recommend tests such as X-ray and blood test as well as recommend a cancer specialist or oncologist for further tests to determine what kind of cancer you have and if it has spread to other parts of the body. Based on the results, a specialist will decide the best way to treat your cancer.

One test that a specialist may perform is a biopsy where a piece of tissue is removed from a tumour or a place in the body where cancer is suspected, like the bone marrow. The sample that’s collected will then be examined under a microscope for cancer cells. It’s important to remember that the sooner cancer is found and treatment begins, the better your chances are for a full recovery and cure.

What Are The Stages Of Cancer?

Stage Sites
0

Abnormal cells in an area of body and may develop into cancer in future, also known as Carcinoma In Situ.

I

Cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ it started.

II

Cancer has not spread into surrounding tissues but cancer cells may have spread into lymph nodes close to the tumour.

III

Cancer may have spread to surrounding tissues and lymph nodes in the area.

IV

Cancer has spread from where it started to another organ. This is also known as secondary or metastatic cancer.

Cancer Research UK

Reference: Cancer Research UK, Retrieved (21 July 2017), https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/ 

Staging describes the size of a cancer and how far it has grown. It is important because it provides valuable information for doctors in coming up with a treatment plan and to determine whether the treatment should involve a course of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery or a combination of the three.

What is the treatment for cancer?

Cancer is usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or sometimes a combination of these treatments. The choice of treatment depends on the type of cancer you have and the stage of the tumour.

Surgery is a procedure which is performed by an experienced surgeon that removes the growth of cancer from your body.

Chemotherapy is the use of anti-cancer medicines to treat cancer. The medicines are sometimes taken as a pill, but usually, are given through a special intravenous line.

Radiotherapy is a treatment where radiation is used to kill cancer cells. There are many different ways you can have radiotherapy, but they all work in a similar way. They damage cancer cells and stop them from growing or spreading in the body.

Targeted therapiesare drugs or other elements that block the development and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules (“molecular targets”) that are involved in the growth, progression and spread of cancer. At times, targeted therapy is called “molecularly targeted drugs,” “molecularly targeted therapies,” “precision medicines,” or similar names. Treatment with these drugs is called targeted therapy.

Immunotherapyis a form of cancer treatment that uses or helps your immune system to fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy and this type of treatment uses substances made from living organisms to treat cancer. The main forms of immunotherapy now being used to treat cancer include:

  • Monoclonal antibodies, which are drugs that are designed to bind to specific targets in the body. They can cause an immune response that destroys cancer cells. Other types of monoclonal antibodies can “mark” cancer cells so it is easier for the immune system to find and destroy them. These types of monoclonal antibodies are also referred to as targeted therapy.
  • Cytokines, which are proteins that are made by your body’s cells. They play important roles in the body’s normal immune responses and also in the immune system’s ability to respond to cancer.
  • Treatment Vaccines, which work against cancer by boosting your immune system’s response to cancer cells. Treatment vaccines are different from the ones that help prevent disease.

Why is Screening Important?

We know that early detection is one of the most important factors in surviving cancer. Whether you have a family medical history, lifestyle, and other factors that indicate that you are at greater risk for cancer, or if you are in a low-risk group with no symptoms of the disease, screenings are critical to successfully diagnosing and treating cancer.

Screening tests can help find cancer at an early stage before symptoms appear. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat or cure.

What We Can Do For You?

Beacon Hospital prides itself as a cancer specialist hospital that offers a comprehensive cancer treatment programme which includes:

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Radiosurgery (SBS)
  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy

Here at Beacon Hospital, we also offer comprehensive Health Screening packages to suit your specific needs

What are the types of cancer?

Bone Cancer
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Brain Cancer
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Breast Cancer
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Cervical Cancer
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Colon Cancer
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Ear Nose Throat Cancer
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Eye Cancer
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Gallbladder Cancer
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Kidney & Bladder Cancer
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Leukaemia Cancer
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Liver Cancer
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Lung Cancer
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Lymphoma
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Ovarian Cancer
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Pancreatic Cancer
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Prostate Cancer
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Salivary glands & Thyroid Cancer
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Skin Cancer
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Spinal Cord Cancer
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Stomach Cancer
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Testicular Cancer
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What are the types of cancer?

Bone Cancer
Discover More >>
Brain Cancer
Discover More >>
Breast Cancer
Discover More >>
Cervical Cancer
Discover More >>
Colon Cancer
Discover More >>
Ear Nose Throat Cancer
Discover More >>
Eye Cancer
Discover More >>
Gallbladder Cancer
Discover More >>
Kidney & Bladder Cancer
Discover More >>
Leukaemia Cancer
Discover More >>
Liver Cancer
Discover More >>
Lung Cancer
Discover More >>
Lymphoma
Discover More >>
Ovarian Cancer
Discover More >>
Pancreatic Cancer
Discover More >>
Prostate Cancer
Discover More >>
Salivary glands & Thyroid Cancer
Discover More >>
Skin Cancer
Discover More >>
Spinal Cord Cancer
Discover More >>
Stomach Cancer
Discover More >>
Testicular Cancer
Discover More >>

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