Cancer Treatments

Bone Cancer Treatment

Treatment for bone cancer depends on the type of bone cancer you have and how far it has spread. Most people have a combination of:

  • Surgery – to remove the section of cancerous bone.
  • Chemotherapy – to treat certain bone cancers, such as Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma.
  • Radiotherapy – Radiotherapy delivery systems help our radiation oncologists to target difficult-to-reach bone tumours.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects

At Beacon Hospital’s Cancer Centre, treatment may comprise a number of healthcare professionals depending on the type of treatment. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach which includes a clinical oncologist, medical oncologist, radiologist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, cancer nurses, as well as other allied health professionals such as dietitian and physiotherapists.

Brain Cancer Treatment

Various treatments are used to treat brain cancer, including:

  • Surgery – Surgery by an experienced neurosurgeon to remove the brain tumour.
  • Radiotherapy – External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to deliver high doses of radiation to destroy brain tumour cells and to relieve symptoms caused by the tumour.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients.

  • Chemotherapy – is a treatment option that involves the use of drugs given by injection or orally to prevent the cancer cells’ ability from dividing and reproduce. It treats cancer by penetrating the tissues and organ via the bloodstream. These drugs are toxic to the cancer cells but they may also cause some side effects to the normal tissues.

At Beacon Hospital’s Cancer Centre, treatment may comprise a number of healthcare professionals depending on the type of treatment. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach which the  a clinical oncologist, medical oncologist, physician, neurologist, neurosurgeon, cancer nurses, as well as other allied health professionals such as dietician, physiotherapists, speech and occupational therapists.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Treatment options for breast cancer are usually discussed with a breast surgeon or an oncologist (cancer specialist). Breast cancer can be treated in a few ways. It depends on the type of breast cancer and how far it has spread. Individuals with breast cancer often get more than one type of treatment.

Among the treatment for breast cancer are:

  • Breast Surgery – A surgery in which only the part of the breast containing the cancer is removed. The treatment involves the removal of cancer as well as some surrounding normal tissue.

Lumpectomy – Lumpectomy is an extraction of a breast lump with an encompassing edge of normal breast tissue. Lumpectomy is recommended to remove smaller tumors.

Mastectomy – A surgery in which the entire breast is removed, including all of the breast tissue and sometimes other nearby tissues. (Breast Reconstructive surgeries can be done by a  plastic surgeon to create a breast shape using an artificial implant, a flap of tissue from another place on your body, or both.)

Sentinel Node Biopsy – A procedure involving the removal of sentinel lymph nodes, which are the first to be drained by the tumour. These lymph nodes will be removed and analysed in a lab. If these nodes are free of cancer, the cancer is unlikely to have spread and other nodes do not need to be removed.

Axillary Lymph Node Dissection – If cancer is present in the sentinel lymph nodes, then the removal of additional lymph nodes will need to be done. Axillary Lymph Node Dissection can be done at the same time as the surgery for your breast cancer.

  • Radiotherapy is often combined with breast surgery, to enhance treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells. This is a localized form of treatment and is mandatory after conservative surgical treatment. It is given after a lumpectomy or mastectomy if the breast tumour is locally extensive. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of local recurrence.

The main type of radiotherapy used to treat breast cancer is called External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT), which is usually delivered by a machine called a linear accelerator that focuses high-energy X-rays from the outside of the body to the tumour. External Beam Radiation Therapy is the most common procedure after surgery, regardless of whether a lumpectomy or a mastectomy is selected during treatment.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimizing side effects

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help towards improving the time it takes to treat the patients, making the patients feel more comfortable.

TrueBeam 2.7 Radiosurgery/Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital offers:

  • HyperArc™ High-Definition Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery

HyperArc™ high-definition Radiotherapy system represents a significant step forward for high quality Linac-based Radiosurgery, with an easy delivery of non-coplanar Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. HyperArc™ could irradiate multiple tumours at the same time without repositioning the patient, which provides better management of patient motions while saving time for the patient and the clinical team. HyperArc™ ensures the planners achieve extremely compact dose distributions consistently and efficiently while maintaining patient safety.

  • Chemotherapy is a treatment option that involves the use of drugs given by injection or, occasionally, orally to prevent the cancer cells’ ability from dividing and reproduce. Chemotherapy treats cancer by penetrating the tissues and organs via the bloodstream. Chemotherapy drugs are toxic to the cancer cells but they may also cause some side effects to the normal tissues. Chemotherapy is useful to shrink down the tumour when the breast tumour is too large for upfront surgery, a term we call “neoadjuvant chemotherapy”, until the tumour is small enough for optimal surgical resection. Moreover, chemotherapy can be used when cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy can be used in combination with other treatments such as radiotherapy and immunotherapy.

Type of chemo drugs:

Alkylating agent is a type of chemo drug that is capable of damaging the DNA of a cancer cell to ensure that the cell doesn’t make more copies of them.

Topoisomerase inhibitor is a compound that can block the human enzymes that contribute to the growth of cancer cells.

–  Antitumor antibiotic is an anticancer drug that is capable of slowing down or stop the growth of cancer cells.

–  Antimetabolites is a chemo drug that is capable of interfering with more than one enzyme that’s necessary for the growth of DNA inside the cancer cell.

Mitotic inhibitor is a type of chemo drug that is capable of stopping the body from producing the protein which contributes to cancer cell growth.

Corticosteroids is man-made steroids used to help reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.

  • Targeted therapy drugs for breast cancer work by attaching themselves to proteins such as HER2 protein, either to stop the cancer cells from growing or to attach to the protein on cancer cells to bring the chemotherapy drugs directly to them. Targeted therapy drugs work differently from standard chemotherapy drugs and often have different targeted effects.
  • Hormone Therapy is used to slows down or stops the growth of hormone-sensitive tumors, which requires certain hormones to grow. Hormone therapies are used to prevent the body from creating the hormones or by disrupting the action of the hormones.

At Beacon Hospital, we understand that chemotherapy treatment can be a major financial burden for the financially-challenged patients. Hence, we have introduced the Beacon Chemotherapy Welfare Fund for breast cancer patients.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Surgery is suitable for patients diagnosed with Stage I and some early Stage II.

  • Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be performed in addition to removing the cervix.
  • A cone biopsy (removal of the inside of the cervix where cancer started growing)
  • A trachelectomy (removal of the upper vagina and cervix) are some surgical options.

The uterus will not be removed if the woman wishes to preserve her fertility.

Chemotherapy is given along with radiotherapy for late stages of cancer (advanced stage II-IV). Together they give a better treatment response.

Radiotherapy with external beam therapy (administered from an outside source of radiation) and brachytherapy (insertion of radioactive sources near the tumour for a fixed period of time).

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions.
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects.

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients.

  • Targeted therapy drugs work by attaching themselves to proteins or receptors on cancer cells, either killing the cells or helping other therapies, such as chemotherapy, work better. These targeted drugs work differently from standard chemotherapy drugs and often have different targeted effects. For instance, angiogenesis inhibitor targeted drug blocks the formation of new blood vessels that feed tumours, which can be used to treat advanced cervical cancer.
Colon Cancer Treatment

Like most cancers, the treatment of colorectal cancer will be determined by the explicit location and degree of the disease.

  • Colon Surgery– The most common treatment for colorectal cancer. It aims to remove the tumour, part of the healthy intestine and the nearby lymph nodes. After surgery for colorectal cancer, some patients may require chemotherapy to reduce the risk of cancer returning.

Polypectomy – Non-invasive procedure used to expel polyps from within the colon, likewise called the large intestine. A polyp is a strange assortment of tissue. The procedure is typically done simultaneously as a colonoscopy.

Laparoscopy – Non-invasive procedure that involves a thin tube (laparoscope) is inserted into the abdomen through a small incision.

Colectomy – Procedure involving the removal of any part of the colon.

  • Chemotherapy– The most common treatment option for patients with stage III or stage IV. Chemotherapy drugs are given to destroy cancer cells or impede their ability to grow and reproduce.

Type of chemo drugs:

Alkylating agent is a type of chemo drug that is capable of damaging the DNA of a cancer cell to ensure that the cell doesn’t make more copies of them.

Topoisomerase inhibitor is a compound that can block the human enzymes that contribute to the growth of cancer cells.

–  Antitumor antibiotic is an anticancer drug that is capable of slowing down or stop the growth of cancer cells.

–  Antimetabolites is a chemo drug that is capable of interfering with more than one enzyme that’s necessary for the growth of DNA inside the cancer cell.

Mitotic inhibitor is a type of chemo drug that is capable of stopping the body from producing the protein which contributes to cancer cell growth.

Corticosteroids are man-made steroids used to help reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.

  • Radiotherapy – External-beam radiotherapy or radioactive material placed directly near cancer cells. For rectal cancer, external-beam radiation is the most common form of radiotherapy. It is often used in combination with chemotherapy before surgery to reduce the risk of relapse of the disease. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT), which is usually delivered by a machine called a linear accelerator that focuses high-energy X-rays from the outside of the body to the tumour.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients.

TrueBeam 2.7 Radiosurgery/Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital offers:

  • HyperArc™ High-Definition Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery

HyperArc™ high-definition Radiotherapy system represents a significant step forward for high quality Linac-based Radiosurgery, with an easy delivery of non-coplanar Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. HyperArc™ could irradiate multiple tumours at the same time without repositioning the patient, which provides better management of patient motions while saving time for the patient and the clinical team. HyperArc™ ensures the planners achieve extremely compact dose distributions consistently and efficiently while maintaining patient safety.

  • Targeted Therapy – Targeted therapy directs drugs or other specially created substances (e.g., immune system proteins developed in the lab) to attack cancer cells. Targeted therapy may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy.
  • Immunotherapy – A type of treatment that uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer by stimulating the immune system to help it do its job more effectively. For instance, drugs called checkpoint inhibitors can be used for people whose colorectal cancer cells have tested positive for specific gene changes, such as a high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H), or changes in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Immunotherapy can be used to treat some people with advanced colorectal cancer.
Ear Nose Throat Cancer Treatment

Several treatments for head and neck cancer are:

  • Surgery: Surgery may be used to remove cancer and edges of healthy tissue around it and to take out lymph nodes in the neck that haven’t gotten better with other treatments.
  • Radiotherapy: External beam radiation to kill cancer or to shrink it for the ease of surgery process.
  • Chemotherapy: Uses drugs to kill cancer and often used along with radiotherapy.
Eyelid Cancer Treatment

The treatment that may be recommended:

Surgery: To remove the tumour until the margins (edges) are negative (free of tumour).

Most basal cell carcinomas are cured when they are small. Unfortunately, some patients choose to ignore or deny the existence of these tumours. Those patients allow their tumour to invade behind the eye and become difficult or impossible to remove. In these cases, combinations of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy may be required to control or destroy the tumour.

Gallbladder Cancer Treatment
  • Surgery – It may be performed to completely remove the tumour if the cancer is still localized, or to relieve symptoms or pain if the cancer is more widespread.
  • Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy may be prescribed in addition to surgery to help prevent recurrence of gallbladder cancer.
  • Radiotherapy – Radiotherapy for gallbladder cancer may be used to shrink the size of a tumour or to help kill cancer cells that may be left after surgery.
  • A combination of these options.
Kidney and Bladder Cancer Treatment

Treatment course will be determined by the oncologist upon obtaining the results of the diagnostic. Depending on the staging of cancer, the location and size of the tumour, treatment options may vary from case to case and inclusive of:

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy
Leukaemia Cancer Treatment

Treatment method depends on the type of leukaemia and can be treated with any treatment method below:

  • Chemotherapy is the major form of treatment for leukaemia. This drug treatment uses chemicals to kill leukaemia cells
  • Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack specific vulnerabilities within your cancer cells
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
Liver Cancer Treatment

Before deciding on a treatment plan, the patient’s general health will be taken into consideration as well.

  • Surgery – The primary goal of treatment is to remove cancer entirely through surgery. However, this option is limited to the growth and location of the tumour.
  • liver transplant surgery – To remove the diseased liver and replace it with a healthy liver from a donor. This option is only possible for patients with early-stage liver cancer.

Localized treatments for liver cancer is an option where the treatment is administered directly to the cancer cells or the area surrounding the cancer cells. There are various types of localized treatments inclusive of:

  • Radiofrequency ablation – Using ultrasound or CT scan as a guide, one or more thin needles are sued to make small incisions in the abdomen to reach the tumour. It is then heated with an electric current to destroy the tumour.
  • Placing beads filled with radiation in the liver – Tiny beads that contain radiation are placed directly in the liver where they can deliver radiation directly to the affected area.
  • Radiotherapy – Radiation (in this case, high-energy x-rays) for targeting cancer in the liver.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients.

  • Targeted Therapy– ‘Kinase Inhibitor Drug’ is a targeted drug that works in 2 ways. It helps block tumours from forming new blood vessels, which they need to grow. It also targets some of the proteins on cancer cells that normally help them grow.
Lung Cancer Treatment

Treatment of lung cancer depends on the type of cancer, stage of cancer and patient clinical condition.

  • Lung surgery – Surgery is typically used to treat localized lung cancer.

But lung surgery might not be appropriate for you if your cancer has metastasized or is very near any of the following structures:

  • The heart
  • The windpipe
  • The food pipe (oesophagus)
  • Major blood vessels

In these circumstances, your doctor might recommend other cancer treatments as an alternative of surgery, such as radiotherapychemotherapy or a combination of both, targeted therapy or immunotherapy.

  • Chemotherapy – using drugs to kill cancer cells. It works by distressing the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy is the key treatment for small cell lung cancer. Doctors use it because:
  • this type of cancer responds very well to chemotherapy
  • small cell lung cancer tends to have spread beyond the lung when it is diagnosed

Chemotherapy drugs circulate in the bloodstream around the body. Thus, chemotherapy can treat cells that have spread away from the lung tumour and spread to other parts of the body.

Type of chemotherapy drugs:

Alkylating agent is a type of chemo drug that is capable of damaging the DNA of a cancer cell to ensure that the cell doesn’t make more copies of them.

Topoisomerase inhibitor is a compound that can block the human enzymes that contributes to the growth of cancer cells.

–  Antitumor antibiotic is an anticancer drug that is capable of slowing down or stop the growth of cancer cells.

–  Antimetabolites is a chemo drug that is capable of interfering more than one enzyme that’s necessary for the growth of DNA inside the cancer cell.

Mitotic inhibitor is a type of chemo drug that is capable of stopping the body from producing the protein which contributes to the cancer cell growth.

Corticosteroids is man-made steroids used to help reduce the side effects of chemotherapy.

  • Radiotherapy

The primary radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer is External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT). It delivers high doses of radiation to lung cancer cells from outside the body to kill cancer cells. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT), which is usually delivered by a machine called a linear accelerator that focuses high-energy X-rays from the outside of the body to the tumour.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimizing side effects

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients. cancer cells from outside the body to kill cancer cells.

TrueBeam 2.7 Radiosurgery/Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital offers:

  • HyperArc™ High-Definition Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery

HyperArc™ high-definition Radiotherapy system represents a significant step forward for high quality Linac-based Radiosurgery, with an easy delivery of non-coplanar Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) treatments. HyperArc™ could irradiate multiple tumours at the same time without repositioning the patient, which provides better management of patient motions while saving time for the patient and the clinical team. HyperArc™ ensures the planners achieve extremely compact dose distributions consistently and efficiently while maintaining patient safety.

  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS)

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a non-surgical radiation therapy used to treat functional abnormalities and small tumours of the brain. It can deliver precisely-targeted radiation in fewer high-dose treatments than traditional therapy, which can help preserve healthy tissue.

  • Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT/SRT)

Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SBRT/SRT) gives radiotherapy from many different angles around the body. The beams meet at the tumour, this means the tumour receives a high dose of radiation and the tissues around it receive a much lower dose. This lowers the risk of side effects. Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SBRT/SRT) is mainly used to treat smaller size tumour in lung, liver, lymph nodes, spinal cord and brain.

  • Immunotherapy – Immunotherapy stimulate the body’s immune system to recognize, attack and kill cancer cells. Immunotherapy may not be suggested for all patients, and responses to the treatment may vary widely. Immunotherapy may also be used in combination with other treatments such as radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Targeted therapy – For lung cancer, targeted therapy works in a way that it disrupts the way cancers cells signal or interact with each other, causing them to stop growing and dividing. This treatment often has fewer side effects because they focus on targeting what is exactly wrong with the cancer cell, instead of killing normal, healthy cells too. For example, EGFR inhibitors, an oral medication, can be used alone without chemotherapy as the first treatment to block the signal from EGFR that tells the cells to grow for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR gene mutations. However, it is only suitable for patients with certain specific mutations found in the tumour.
Lymphoma Treatment
  • Radiotherapy – Used to destroy lymphoma cells to prevent them from spreading or to shrink painful tumours in the spleen or lymph nodes.
  • Immunotherapy – draws from the body’s immune system to kill cancer cells or limit their growth.
  • Chemotherapy – Chemotherapy for patients often consists of taking several drugs together in a set regimen.
  • Targeted therapy – Uses immune cells engineered in a laboratory. These cells, when injected back into the body, are designed to target specific features in cells, killing them or preventing them from growing.
Ovarian Cancer Treatment
  • Surgery – To locate and remove visible signs of cancer in a process called debulking.
  • Chemotherapy – To deliver high doses of chemotherapy drug combinations to tumours, while reducing damage to the rest of your body.
  • Radiotherapy – Delivery of high dose radiation to kill the cancer cells.
  • Targeted therapy – To block the enzyme poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) from identifying damaged DNA inside cancer cells, PARP inhibitors may stop cancer cells from repairing themselves.
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

Treatment options for pancreatic cancer include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • A combination of these options.
Prostate Cancer Treatment

Treatment of fast-growing prostate cancer involves:

  • Surgery (Radical prostatectomy) – The removal of the prostate gland is an option for localized lesion and locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • Radiotherapy – is a treatment where radiation is used to kill cancer cells. They damage cancer cells and stop them from growing or spreading in the body.

Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:

  • Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
  • Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects

Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients.

  • Chemotherapy – involves the use of drugs given by injection or orally to prevent the cancer cells’ ability from dividing and reproduce.
  • Radiosurgery – Radiosurgery is non-invasive and there is no cutting involved. It is a high level of radiation beams to precisely target and destroy cancer cells.
  • Targeted Therapy – is a cancer treatment that uses drugs. But it is different from traditional chemotherapy, which also uses drugs to treat cancer. Targeted therapy works by targeting cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival.
Salivary Glands & Thyroid Cancer Treatment

When detected early, salivary gland can often be cured. During the treatment planning process, the oncologist will have to consider the treatment impact on the patient’s quality of life, preferences and overall health.

Surgery is the first recommended treatment option to completely remove the tumour. For salivary gland cancer, surgery to remove the parotid gland is an option, it is call parotidectomy. This type of surgery may include resecting the facial nerves if the cancer had spread there, if so a nerve graft will be necessary. If the cancer had spread to the lymph nodes, a neck dissection will be performed to remove the tumour entirely. Occasionally, but rarely, the tumour can be removed endoscopically which is less destructive to the healthy tissues. This option is used when the tumour begins in the paranasal are around the nose. Other treatment options are radiation therapy & chemotherapy.

Surgery option for thyroid cancer is to consider removing the affected lobe. This surgery is call lobectomy. Depending on the advancement of the disease, a near-total thyroidectomy will be considered if the cancer had spread. This surgery type removes almost all but a small part of the thyroid gland. A total thyroidectomy is an option where the entire thyroid gland is removed. After the surgery, patients are required to undergo hormone treatment to replace the hormones the body needs. Radiation and chemotherapy are the next treatment option.

Skin Cancer Treatment

There are several effective means of treating skin cancer. The choice of therapy depends on:

  • the type of skin cancer
  • how far it’s grown or spread
  • stage of cancer (if relevant)
  • the general health of the patient.

Surgery

This is the main treatment for skin cancer. This may be the only treatment needed. A skin graft may be needed to covers removal of a large area or depending on where the cancer is located in the body.

There are different types of surgery depending on the where the cancer and how big it is. Examples are excisional biopsy, cryosurgery, laser surgery, curettage and electrocautery or Mohs microsurgery.

Radiation therapy:
This is a treatment for basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma. This treatment may be recommended if:

  • Cancer affects a large area
  • Cancer in difficult to operate on
  • Surgery not suitable for example in an elderly patient
  • To reduce risk of cancer returning after surgery
  • Cancer beyond nodes

Chemotherapy:
In the case where skin cancers are only on the top layer of the skin, creams, gels, and solutions can be used. Chemotherapy creams can be used on actinic or solar keratosis to prevent development into squamous cell carcinoma.

If cancer has spread, chemotherapy may be recommended.

Immunotherapy:
A new class of drugs that teaches the body immune system to attack cancer cells such as checkpoint inhibitors are now replacing chemotherapy as the standard treatment for melanoma. These can be used in combination and has been shown to extend lives.

Spinal Cord Cancer Treatment

Treatments for spinal cancer vary depending on a number of factors, including the type, stage and location of the disease. Common treatments include:

  • Surgery – the goal of spinal cancer surgery depends on several factors, including the location and grade of the tumour, and the symptoms present. When the tumour is limited to one portion of the spinal column, surgery will be performed to remove cancer.
  • Radiotherapy – is used following surgical resection of a tumour, to destroy microscopic tumour cells left behind. It may also be an option for metastatic spinal tumours.
  • Chemotherapy – is to treat the primary and metastatic spinal cancer with an aggressive and creative approach. Our Doctor will select spinal cancer chemotherapy drugs and delivery methods based on individual needs.

At Beacon Hospital’s Brain & Spine Centre, a team of experienced spine specialists and neurosurgeons are on hand to treat conditions including spinal cord tumours, as well as spine and nerve disorders. Microsurgical, minimally invasive and personalized treatment options tailored to individual needs are normally delivered.

Stomach Cancer Treatment

Treatment options for stomach cancer require comprehensive and innovative diagnostic imaging to determine appropriate treatment for each patient. Treatment options for stomach cancer inclusive of:

  • Surgery – to remove all of cancer and a margin of healthy tissue including relevant lymph nodes.
  • Radiotherapy – to kill any cancer cells that might remain after stomach cancer surgery, alleviate pain and stop bleeding or shrink tumours that may be blocking the digestive tract.
  • Chemotherapy – To shrink tumour to make surgery easier and improve the outcome of treatment.
  • Targeted therapy –for patients with advanced stomach cancer whose cancer cells tested positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).
Testicular Cancer Treatment

The treatments depend on the type and stage of testicular cancer as well individual preferences. The treatment options inclusive of:

  • Surgery – to remove the testicle with the tumour.
  • Chemotherapy– to cure testicular cancer when it has spread outside the testicle or to decrease the risk of cancer coming back after the testicle is removed.
  • Radiotherapy – External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to deliver radiation to lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis that may be hiding testicular cancer cells.
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Highlights

The Edge News Coverage:

Mary Chen built a cancer hospital to give poor patients same chance at treatment

CodeBlue.org News Coverage:

Losing Millions Doesn’t Stop Beacon Hospital From Treating Cancer

Hope for End Stage Lung Cancer

“Persistence” that created a Miracle

Lung Cancer Network Malaysia:

Gathering of Specialist to Fight Lung Cancer