Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland found only in male located below the bladder in front of the rectum, which produces fluid that forms parts of semen. It is treatable if diagnosed early before it spreads.
Type of Prostate Cancer
- Adenocarcinomas – Found in the glands that secrete prostate fluid, which is found in semen.
Staging of Prostate Cancer
|I||Cancer is confined to the prostate and can’t be detected with a digital rectal exam.|
|II||Cancer may be detected during a digital rectal exam.|
|III||Cancer is in tissues near the prostate.|
|IV||Cancer has invaded other parts of the body, such as the rectum, nearby lymph nodes or bone.|
Symptoms become apparent when the prostate has enlarged affecting the urethra. Symptoms of advanced prostate cancer inclusive of:
- Difficulty in urinating
- Blood in the urine
- The urge for more frequent urination
- Pain in the bones due to cancer metastasis to the bone
- Painful ejaculation
The diagnosis of prostate cancer can be pursued through:
- Blood test
- Digital rectal examination (DRE) – Involves inserting a lubricated and gloved finger into the rectum to feel for the consistency and size of the prostate gland.
- Biopsy – Guiding of a small probe into the rectum and removes a small tissue sample from the prostate for further examination.
- Computerized Tomography (CT) scan– To detect the blood flow and anatomy of tissues in and around the prostate.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan– To detect the cancerous cells before tumours or structural changes are present.
- Measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) – To detect early prostate cancer.
Treatment of fast-growing prostate cancer involves:
- Surgery (Radical prostatectomy) – The removal of the prostate gland is an option for localized lesion and locally advanced prostate cancer.
- Radiotherapy – is a treatment where radiation is used to kill cancer cells. They damage cancer cells and stop them from growing or spreading in the body.
Halcyon Radiotherapy System at Beacon Hospital enables:
- Fast and precise X-ray dose delivered to each tumour with high accuracy over a minimum number of treatment sessions
- Reduces unwanted radiation dose, thus, minimising side effects
Unlike any other radiation delivery system, the Halcyon technology’s beam-on time could be as fast as 1-minute plus. Its gantry rotates 4 times faster than a standard linear accelerator and its multi-leaf collimator (MLC) can move twice faster than traditional MLCs. All of these features help in improving the time it takes to treat the patients.
- Chemotherapy – involves the use of drugs given by injection or orally to prevent the cancer cells’ ability from dividing and reproduce.
- Radiosurgery – Radiosurgery is non-invasive and there is no cutting involved. It is a high level of radiation beams to precisely target and destroy cancer cells.
- Targeted Therapy – is a cancer treatment that uses drugs. But it is different from traditional chemotherapy, which also uses drugs to treat cancer. Targeted therapy works by targeting cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival.